Differentiation for English Learners

by Guest Blogger Lindsey Moses, Author and 2015 Literacy for All Conference Speaker

Differentiation seems to be quite the educational buzzword, and it should be. Essentially, all teachers should be differentiating for their students. No two students or two classes are the same. Although there are similarities, students come in with a wide range of skills and background knowledge from which to build on for effective, targeted instruction right in their Zone of Proximal Development (Vygotsky 1978). Although this makes sense and most teachers already know this, the question is really about logistics: What does differentiation look like? How do I do it? How do I differentiate for my English learners?

Variations on Differentiation

I consider four variations of differentiation when planning instruction to support English learners in literacy. I will briefly discuss the four models described by Opitz and Ford (2008) in Doable Differentiation. Then, I will go on to talk about the more complex and complicated differentiation techniques presented by Tomlinson’s (2001) extensive work with differentiation. I will then address Serafini’s (2012) differentiation considerations model. I will share with you my suggestions for differentiation according to language proficiency stages. Finally, I always quote Tim Gunn and encourage you to “Make it work!” Differentiation should be about adjusting instruction to optimally meet the needs of diverse learners. No one model will work perfectly in every classroom, so basically, I encourage you to differentiate the differentiation models for yourselves.

There are entire books on differentiation, so I will only give a brief overview here. Opitz and Ford (2008) present four models for differentiation: grouping without tracking; jigsaw; connected literature circles; and focused readers’ workshop. Each model considers ways to differentiate according to text, grouping and support. Tomlinson (2001) presents a more complex process as she recommends differentiation through content, process, product, and affect/environment according to students’ readiness, interest, and learning profile. She advocates creating a high-interest activity, charting it along a complexity ladder, and then cloning the activity along the ladder to meet the needs of individual learners. Serafini (2012) argues that differentiation is really a matter of differentiating (or modifying) texts, teaching, tasks, time, talk, and/or context.

Differentiation for English Learners

The previously mentioned models are designed for classrooms without a specific focus on English learners. In order to support English learners, we must understand the stages of language proficiency and general ideas for differentiation at each stage. The following chart gives a general overview.

Stages of Language Proficiency Description Implications for Literacy Instruction
Stage 1: Preproduction

Silent Period (Starting)

Students are in a silent period in which they listen, but do not speak in English. They may respond using nonverbal cues in attempt to communicate basic needs. The teacher and other students should model oral reading. Students in the silent period should not be forced to speak, but should be given the opportunity to try, if they want, in a group activity where they won’t be singled out.
Stage 2:

Early Production (Emerging)

Students are beginning to understand more oral language. They respond using one- or two-word phrases and start to produce simple sentences for basic social interactions and to meet basic needs. Teacher and students should continue to model oral reading. Students should be encouraged to begin taking risks with simple, rehearsed reading and discussion in non-threatening situations.
Stage 3:

Speech Emergence (Developing)

Students’ listening comprehension improves, and they can understand written English. Students are fairly comfortable engaging in social conversations using simple sentences, but they are just beginning to develop their academic language proficiency. Students continue to learn through modeling.   Students should be participating in whole-class, small group, partner, and rehearsed reading, writing and discussion activities. They will need support and opportunities to practice with feedback before independent or paired sharing or reading for an audience.
Stage 4: Intermediate Fluency

(Expanding)

Students understand and frequently use conversational English with relatively high accuracy. Their academic vocabulary is expanding, but they still need support with contextualization of abstract concepts. They are able to communicate their ideas in both oral and written contexts. With scaffolding, students can successfully participate in most all literacy activities that native-speakers are expected to complete. Open-ended questions will allow students to demonstrate comprehension and academic language development.
Stage 5:

Advanced Fluency (Bridging)

Students comprehend and engage in conversational and academic English with proficiency. They perform near grade-level in reading, writing, and other content areas. Students should be encouraged to use higher-level thinking skills during their oral reading. They are near native-like proficiency in oral reading, but may still need support with analyzing, inferring and evaluating

Adapted from Supporting English Learners in the Reading Workshop (Moses, 2015)

Building on all of these models, I created a differentiation-planning chart specifically for teachers of English learners. It is organized according to language proficiency levels. I encourage you to think about the teacher roles (how you can modify instruction to support English learners) and students’ expectations (what you can realistically expect your English learners to do and work toward).

English Learner Differentiation Planning Chart

Stages of Language Proficiency Teacher Roles English Learner Expectations/Performance
Stage 1: Preproduction

Silent Period (Starting)

Stage 2:

Early Production (Emerging)

Stage 3:

Speech Emergence (Developing)

Stage 4: Intermediate Fluency

(Expanding)

Stage 5:

Advanced Fluency (Bridging)

I suggest starting with a general whole-class anchor lesson and then planning teacher roles and English learner expectations based on what we know about the options for differentiation and stages of language proficiency. Putting language acquisition at the forefront of instructional differentiation considerations presents optimal growth opportunities for English learners.

References:

Moses, Lindsey. 2015. Supporting English Learners in the Reading Workshop. Portsmouth, NH:

Heinemann.

Opitz, Michael F. and Michael Ford. 2008. Doable Differentiation: Varying Groups,

Texts and Supports to Reach Readers. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Serafini, Frank. 2012. “What Are We Differentiating in Differentiated Instruction?”

Journal of the Reading Association of Ireland. Fall Issue: 12-16.

Tomlinson, Carol A. 2001. How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability

Classrooms. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development: Alexandria, VA.

Vygotsky, Lev. 1978. Mind in Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Lindsay Moses will be speaking on Monday, November 16 and Tuesday, November 17 at the Literacy for All conference in Providence, RI. Her sessions are entitled, “Supporting English Learners in the Reading Workshop” and “Supporting English Learners in the Mainstream Classroom.”

Thinking about Text Choices for Readers Who Struggle

by Cindy Downend, Assistant Director of Primary Programs and Helen Sisk, Intermediate/Middle Grades Faculty Member, Lesley University Center for Reading Recovery and Literacy Collaborative

We’re busy in the Center right now preparing for our Summer Institute on Teaching Struggling Readers: Elevating Teacher Expertise in Grades K–6 and we have been pondering all that we need to consider when selecting texts for our students who are finding it difficult to read. Fortunately, Gay and Irene have provided us with some guidance in When Readers Struggle that is (as always) sage advice:

  1. Readers need to be engaged with delightful texts. Often, the most struggling students are given the least appealing texts that would be off-putting to any reader. Select texts about interesting topics in nonfiction or appealing characters in fiction. Also be sure to provide visually interesting books with compelling illustrations or photographs.
  1. Next, think about how the child will understand the text. Struggling readers need something they can relate to their own experiences and understandings. When selecting a text ask yourself, “Does the text have enough support to allow them to predict, to make inferences, to learn something new?” (Page 402)
  1. Consider if the print features of the text will support comprehension. Beginning readers need simple font with clear spaces between lines and words. Print layout becomes more complex along the gradient of text, but you will want to ensure that the text layout is not confusing. Students need to learn to deal with complex text features, but be sure that there is not too much for the reader to handle.   
  1. Use books with language that is accessible to the reader. Written language will always be different than what is spoken. However, you will want to think about the match between a child’s oral language and the language structures in the text. At the earlier reading levels the match needs to be close so children can use what they know about language to help them read. As readers move into higher text levels, the language becomes more complex. This gradual increase then expands the reader’s processing system. 
  1. Analyze the text structure to ensure that the reader will be able to understand the meaning. Think about how the book is organized and the reader’s current ability to follow a story or manage different kinds of organization. Stories with a repeating pattern are much easier to comprehend then a text with a more challenging structure of multiple episodes, flashbacks, etc. With nonfiction, consider how the text “works” and support the reader by explaining any unfamiliar structures. The ultimate goal is to enable readers to figure out how texts are organized.
  1. Evaluate the illustrations to ensure that they support meaning and do not confuse the reader. Beginning readers need a well-defined story and the illustrations at the earliest text levels carry most of the meaning. Look for pictures that are clear with no distracting information. At higher text levels, the illustrations will extend understanding and are meant to enhance the meaning of the book.

If you would like to think more about the role of text selection as well as all of the other facets in supporting readers who struggle, come to Cambridge this summer and join us for Lesley University’s summer institute on readers who struggle being held July 13–16.

During this four-day institute, you will join educational leaders Irene Fountas and Gay Su Pinnell, and university faculty in exploring the characteristics of students who struggle with reading and examine the teaching practices that support their reading growth. Students who struggle with reading require instruction that builds on their strengths and scaffolds their next steps.

This institute is available for noncredit or credit. To register go to: http://www.lesley.edu/summer-literacy-institute/

Technology Paves the Way for Wider Audience

By Guest Blogger Meenoo Rami, 2015 Literacy for All Keynote Speaker, Author, and Teacher

In late February, Pew Internet and American Life Project published the How Teachers Are Using Technology at Home and Their Classrooms report. The results aren’t surprising:

  • 92% of teacher respondents say the Internet has a “major impact” on their ability to access content, resources, and materials for their teaching;
  • 69% say the Internet has a “major impact” on their ability to share ideas with other teachers; and
  • 67% say the Internet has a “major impact” on their ability to interact with parents and 57% say it has had such an impact on enabling their interaction with students.

It’s commendable that a majority of teachers are finding ways to bring digital tools into the learning process and help students “access content.” But now we need to work with students to create content as well.

Douglass Rushkoff, a prolific writer on the topic of technology and society, asks: “The real question is, do we direct technology, or do we let ourselves be directed by it and those who have mastered it?”

Yes, our students need information literacy skills. But they also need the ability to code, curate, and create content to share with a wider audience. When students can reach an audience of more than one (their teacher), they can get feedback from variety of sources, become more invested in their work, and gain valuable skills in the process.

So what does taking students’ work public look like? Check out some examples:

Mrs. Paluch’s Room

Mrs. Paluch, a third grade teacher in a charter school in Philadelphia, is making her students’ work public as they uncover the country of Brazil, complete a unit on fairy tales, and help out their kindergarten buddies. Parents, grandparents, and colleagues can catch a glimpse of the teaching and learning that is happening in this third grade classroom. Knowing that others will “see their work” motivates students and helps teachers like Mrs. Paluch reflect on their practice.

Monmouth County Vocational School District Student Showcase

Sarah Mulhern Gross offers a glimpse into an entire school community, pausing to highlight excellent student work. On this blog, you will find examples of student writing, artwork, presentations and much more. Carving out a space to give student work a digital spotlight emphasizes the point that students are writers and creators and not just consumers of content.

Stash Photo

During the second quarter, my students at the Science Leadership Academy produced a teen magazine called Stash. After examining articles after which they could model their own work, they created their own teen magazine, covering topics such as music, art, time management, and Philadelphia’s food scene. My students learned about everything from research to writing to design and layout. So far, more than 2,000 people have clicked on our magazine and examined the students’ work.

What are some examples you’ve seen lately that make students’ work public in compelling ways, motivating learners and letting community members know what actually happens in the classroom?

Meenoo Rami is the keynote speaker on Monday, November 16 at the 2015 Literacy for All conference in Providence, RI. Her keynote is entitled Teacher Practice in a Connected World (Grades K–8). She is also speaking on Monday from 10:30 am-12:00 pm and again from 1:30 pm–3:00 pm. The title of both of those sessions is Empowering Your Students (Grades K–8).

A First Timer’s Guide to Registering for Literacy for All

We’re excited to announce we’ve opened registration for the 26th Annual Literacy for All Conference, co-hosted with The University of Maine, the University of Connecticut, and New York University. This year the conference will be held November 15–17, 2015 in Providence, Rhode Island. While we know many of you are veteran LFA attendees, each year we have more and more new faces joining us in Providence. Welcome to all first timers!

We have made it even easier to register for the Literacy for All Conference! Simply visit https://www.regonline.com/lfa2015 and enter your email address to begin your registration process. We’ve put together a little guide to our online registration system to help make the process as quick and painless as possible.

An Important Note

We have created an online registration process that seamlessly guides you through the steps of registration. Please do not use your Internet browser’s “back” button if you want to go back and make a change, as it will cause errors and you will not be able to complete your registration. Instead, if you need to change something, complete your registration and then email us at literacy@lesley.edu, and we will make the changes for you.

Before You Register

First, you should make a list of all the sessions you want to attend. You can find the full list on our website. Each time block is listed with a letter, ie: LCA, LCB, etc. Then, each session within that time block is numbered. So the full session code will read something like LCA-1 or LCC-4. You can only choose one session per time block, so you should have one LCA, one LCB, and so on.

The only variation is in the In Depth sessions, which occur either in the C or F blocks. In Depth sessions are three hours long, not the normal 90 minutes, so if you choose an In Depth session for your C or F, you will not be able to choose a D or G, respectively, as the In Depth session will run through that time.

If a session doesn’t appear on the drop-down menu that means it is sold out and you will have to choose another session. Sessions do sell out, so we recommend registering as early as possible to ensure you get all your first choices.

Second, know your method of payment. If your district will be paying for you with a purchase order, you don’t need to know the purchase order number to register. If your district will be paying for you with a credit card, you can still register yourself. When you get to the checkout screen, simply choose “Pay with Purchase Order” and then have your district call us with the credit card number, or fax or email us the PO within ten business days of registering. Please note, if you are paying with a purchase order (PO), we require that you submit a copy of your PO to secure your registration. If your PO has not been received by the opening of the institute, you will be required to provide a credit card in order to attend the institute.

We recommend that all attendees register themselves. The process begins with an email validation– you’ll receive an email with a secure link, which you’ll need to click on in order to continue your registration. Forwarding these emails can sometimes be tricky, so we recommend you register yourself to avoid confusion.

If someone else has to register for you, we recommend that you choose your sessions ahead of time and give the list to the person registering you. If someone else chooses your sessions and you have to change more than 75% of them after October 1, 2015, it will be considered a paper registration and a $15 charge will be applied to your account for processing.

When entering in your personal information, please note that there are separate spaces to enter your school district and your school name. When entering your district, please don’t use abbreviations like RSD or UFSD– if the district has a separate name (ie: Oxford Hills School District) please use that; alternately, please spell out the words Regional School District. This will help us keep uniformity in printing name badges, and help match up registrants to purchase orders when we receive them.

Confirmation

When you’re done registering, you will see a screen with a green box confirming that your registration is complete. If you don’t get the green box, you haven’t finished registering yet! Once you get to that screen, be sure to read it thoroughly, as it contains details about which sessions have required readings and materials, a list of conference policies, your own detailed agenda based on the sessions you selected, and other helpful links.

In addition to the confirmation page, a confirmation email will be automatically sent to the email address you provided. If it doesn’t appear within an hour of you registering, check your spam and junk folders, as some email providers mark emails from RegOnline as spam by mistake. In the past, many were not able to receive RegOnline emails, because many schools block emails from RegOnline, so if you have a personal email address, we encourage you to use it, instead of your school email, when registering. If you don’t receive your confirmation email at all, please email literacy@lesley.edu and we will re-send it to you.

Please help us be environmentally conscious! Do not print out your confirmation message to mail in with your check or PO. Instead, just make sure your full name and district are written on the PO or in the item line of the check. That’s all we need to match up your payment with your record in the system.

Conference Events, Exhibit Fair, and Other Information

The conference registration desk hours are as follows:

Sunday, November 15, 2015: 10:00 am–6:00 pm

Monday, November 16, 2015: 7:00 am–5:00 pm

Tuesday, November 17, 2015: 7:30 am–9:00 am

The conference help desk will be open 7:00 am – 6:00 pm each day.

Literacy for All also includes an exhibit fair with booths showcasing classroom services and products for all grade levels and subjects. Exhibit hours are 4:00–6:00 pm on Sunday, 10:00–6:00 on Monday, with the Exhibit Fair from 5:00–6:00; and 7:30–2:30 on Tuesday. During the Exhibit Fair on Monday, you can enter to win something from our prize raffle, and get books signed by some of our featured and keynote speakers.

Please visit the conference website, for information on hotels, parking, attendance policy and certificates of attendance, and sessions with required readings/handouts/materials.

Have questions? You can contact us anytime at literacy@lesley.edu or by phone at 617.349.8402.

Looking forward to seeing you all in November!

Is There a Culture of Teacher Growth in Your School?

3.20.15 Irene Fountas Photo

by Irene Fountas, Author and Director of the Lesley University Center for Reading Recovery and Literacy Collaborative

In a culture of teacher growth, the educators in a school value their expertise and seek opportunities to expand it. They value teamwork and how it contributes to the achievement of all the students in the school. Think for a minute about the characteristics of your school culture.
  • What are the professional learning expectations for you in your school?  In other words, what is your understanding of what is expected of you in terms of continuous professional learning and what should you expect of your colleagues?
  • Are the expectations for professional learning by the educators communicated in a written document so everyone who works in the building has the same understandings and expectations of each other?
  • How generous are you in sharing your teaching and supporting your colleagues? How would your colleagues describe you as a team member?
These key questions are at the very foundation of a culture of professionalism in a school. The professional educators seek to continuously improve their expertise and appreciate every opportunity to interact and converse with each other about teaching and learning. The teachers understand that you don’t have to be a bad teacher to get better and they insist upon and value opportunities to grow their craft.
In schools that value collaboration and a growth culture, teachers and administrators see themselves as a team. They strive to get better and are committed to helping their colleagues be as good as they can be. They take collective responsibility for student outcomes and use language that reflects their stance. For example, they talk about “our school” and “our students” and student achievement is a reflection of the team’s efforts.
Every teacher in the school is viewed as a leader who is committed to solving problems together. A positive stance about the team’s ability to create change and improve student learning is the norm of the school. And of course, if you have the privilege of a resident coach for the team, everyone benefits from having a colleague in the role of supporting the continuous reflection and growth of all team members.
These are worthy goals for building the professional capacity of your school, but as we all know, school improvement is a journey that takes time. The key is to be moving in the right direction.
Take stock with your team as to how well you work together and make a plan to take steps that will foster better teamwork and more opportunities for continuous professional learning. Your commitment to your professional learning, to each other’s learning, and to teamwork will surely benefit the students you teach.
If you would like to view our professional development opportunity this summer for administrators that focuses on school culture, our What Every School Leader Needs to Know About Good Literacy Teaching and Effective Literacy Coaching, K-8 seminar runs August 10-13, 2015 at Lesley University: http://www.lesley.edu/center-for-reading-recovery/school-leaders-training/

Resisting the Frenzy: Staying the Course of Common Sense in Literacy Teaching

3.20.15 Irene Fountas Photo

by Irene Fountas, Author, Professor, and Director of the Center for Reading Recovery and Literacy Collaborative at Lesley University

In the past several decades, there have been a variety of movements that have shifted literacy teaching in our schools. Often the newest trend has meant a total mind-shift of instructional practice for teachers. Certainly something important can be learned from the emphases of each movement, but each swing of the pendulum has also left out some important areas of literacy teaching and learning. One cannot simply make the assumption when there is a new movement in the midst that the worthy new areas of emphasis are not already implemented in schools that are implementing a high quality literacy approach.

When we have articulated our values and beliefs about meaningful, authentic literacy learning in our schools, we can examine the contributions of each new movement in the light of well-grounded principles and stay the course of common sense in our responsibilities to our students, instead of shifting to a new bias that may compromise our commitment.

I will address a few of the key areas we have articulated in our work in supporting high quality literacy approaches that we believe have stayed the course of common sense for almost three decades.

First, every student deserves to have a meaningful and interesting reading life and writing life in school.

This means students read and write for real purposes every day in school and have choice in what they read and write. Choice breeds students’ sense of agency and promotes engagement, and furthers the development of one’s tastes in reading and one’s voice in writing. With the appropriate learning environment and scaffolding, students learn that reading and writing are thinking and that they can think about a variety of topics, authors and genres when they read and mentor with the thinking of the best of writers when they write. They experience some teacher-selected high quality literature and nonfiction, but also a good selection of self-selected material that builds their understanding of their selves and their physical and social world. They learn from their teachers how to make the good choices that offer enjoyment and expand their breadth and depth as readers, writers, and global citizens.

Second, students need a variety of structured opportunities to talk throughout the day.

Talk represents thinking. Students need to think and talk in school. This means pair and triad talk, small group talk, and some whole class discussions that have intent, not just talk for talk’s sake. This includes such instructional contexts as reading or writing conferences, literature discussion groups, guided reading groups, and interactive read aloud lessons that include pair or small group talk. Teachers sometimes don’t realize they are dominating the talk and robbing the students of the process of learning through verbalizing their understandings and building on or challenging each other’s ideas. The one who talks is the one who learns. Teachers play a key role in helping students learn how to use language that promotes conversation and the analysis of texts with others to achieve deeper understandings than any one reader could achieve on his own. When students discuss a variety of fiction texts, nonfiction texts, and poetry in a community of readers and writers, they learn how to use the language and vocabulary of literate people. These rich experiences build their background knowledge and academic vocabulary and put each learner in the role of a literate being.

Third, the text base for learning needs to include a variety of high quality fiction and nonfiction texts, primary and secondary sources, as well as poetry. 

The classroom text base needs to provide access to age appropriate, grade appropriate material that is of high interest and value. Sometimes the texts students are asked to read simply aren’t worth reading or don’t engage their intellectual curiosity. The texts need to be meaningful, relevant, developmentally appropriate and made accessible. Alongside this rich base, students need the opportunity to lift their reading powers with the precision teaching made possible with the teacher’s use of carefully leveled, challenging texts at the student’s instructional level. These texts allow for the differentiated, intentional teaching that each student deserves to develop an effective processing system and move forward as a self-regulating, independent reader.  Photo of Girl Reading

Fourth, students deserve to be acknowledged as unique learners.

Every student and every group of students is different. When teachers learn how to systematically observe the strengths and needs of individuals, the assessments can inform instruction and the teaching can be responsive. No assessment is valuable if it doesn’t result in better teaching. Good assessment gives information on how students process texts and what they understand about words, language, and text qualities. High quality literacy opportunities are built on the strength of the teacher’s expertise in assessing the readers and writers he/she is teaching. Some teachers fall into the trap of teaching students as if they are all the same or focus on teaching the book or program, not the diverse group of students in front of them. Effective teachers assess at intervals to document progress and assess by the minute to fine tune their decisions in the act of teaching.

Staying the Course 

These are some of the mainstays of high quality literacy opportunities for every student. Learning to read and write is complex and will require the complexity of teacher decision-making with sound rationales that are rooted in students’ observable reading, writing and language behaviors. Let’s look to the new movements for what they add to our expertise but keep our good sense about what really matters.

For more information about the Lesley University Center for Reading Recovery and Literacy Collaborative events and trainings, visit our website at www.lesley.edu/crr .

Are You Teaching or Testing Comprehension?

irene_fountas_photoby Irene Fountas, Author and Director of the Center for Reading Recovery and Literacy Collaborative at Lesley University

All too often, successful comprehension has been regarded as a student’s ability to answer a teacher’s questions (which is one way of assessing comprehension), but it does not enhance the reader’s self-regulating power for processing a new text with deep understanding. Think about how your teaching moves may be focused on testing when you continually pose questions, or how you can shift to teaching or helping students learn how to comprehend texts for themselves.

Teaching for comprehending means supporting your students’ ability to construct the meaning of the text in a way that expands their reading ability. You can help them learn what to notice in a text and what is important to think about, how to solve problems when meaning is not clear, and provide scaffolds to develop their in-the-head systems for working through the meaning of the text. These abilities are generative, so students will be able to transfer what they learn how to do as readers before, during, or after reading to a variety of increasingly challenging texts in every genre.

Introduce the text to readers

When you introduce a challenging text to your students, be sure to help them notice how the writer constructed the meaning, organized the text, used language and made decisions about the print features. Help them know how the book works and get them started thinking about the writers’ purpose and message and the characteristics of the genre.

Prompt the readers for constructive activity

As students read orally, interact very briefly at points of difficulty to demonstrate, prompt for, or reinforce effective problem-solving actions that they can try out and make their own. Your facilitative language is a call for the reader to engage in problem-solving that expands their reading strengths.

Teach students how to read closely

Take the readers back into the text after reading to notice the writer’s craft more closely. Select a phrase, sentence or paragraph, or focus on helping them notice how the writer organized the whole text. Revisiting the text calls the reader’s attention to particular features.

Engage students in talk about texts

Talk represents thinking. When students talk about a text, they are processing the vocabulary, language and content aloud. This enables them to articulate their understandings, reactions and wonderings. When they learn to be articulate in their talk, they can then show their ability to communicate their thinking about texts in their writing.

Engage students in writing about texts

Writing about reading is a tool for sharing and thinking about a text. When students articulate their thoughts in writing, they confirm their understandings, reflect on the meaning and explore new understandings.

Testing is a controlled task for measuring what students can do without teacher help. Teaching is the opportunity to make a difference in the self-regulating capacity of the learner. Reflect on your teaching moves and engage in a discussion with your colleagues to shift from testing to teaching. When students focus on meaning-making with every text they read, they will be able to show their competencies on the test.

For more information about the Lesley University Center for Reading Recovery and Literacy Collaborative’s events and trainings, visit http://www.lesley.edu/crr