Are You Teaching or Testing Comprehension?

irene_fountas_photoby Irene Fountas, Author and Director of the Center for Reading Recovery and Literacy Collaborative at Lesley University

All too often, successful comprehension has been regarded as a student’s ability to answer a teacher’s questions (which is one way of assessing comprehension), but it does not enhance the reader’s self-regulating power for processing a new text with deep understanding. Think about how your teaching moves may be focused on testing when you continually pose questions, or how you can shift to teaching or helping students learn how to comprehend texts for themselves.

Teaching for comprehending means supporting your students’ ability to construct the meaning of the text in a way that expands their reading ability. You can help them learn what to notice in a text and what is important to think about, how to solve problems when meaning is not clear, and provide scaffolds to develop their in-the-head systems for working through the meaning of the text. These abilities are generative, so students will be able to transfer what they learn how to do as readers before, during, or after reading to a variety of increasingly challenging texts in every genre.

Introduce the text to readers

When you introduce a challenging text to your students, be sure to help them notice how the writer constructed the meaning, organized the text, used language and made decisions about the print features. Help them know how the book works and get them started thinking about the writers’ purpose and message and the characteristics of the genre.

Prompt the readers for constructive activity

As students read orally, interact very briefly at points of difficulty to demonstrate, prompt for, or reinforce effective problem-solving actions that they can try out and make their own. Your facilitative language is a call for the reader to engage in problem-solving that expands their reading strengths.

Teach students how to read closely

Take the readers back into the text after reading to notice the writer’s craft more closely. Select a phrase, sentence or paragraph, or focus on helping them notice how the writer organized the whole text. Revisiting the text calls the reader’s attention to particular features.

Engage students in talk about texts

Talk represents thinking. When students talk about a text, they are processing the vocabulary, language and content aloud. This enables them to articulate their understandings, reactions and wonderings. When they learn to be articulate in their talk, they can then show their ability to communicate their thinking about texts in their writing.

Engage students in writing about texts

Writing about reading is a tool for sharing and thinking about a text. When students articulate their thoughts in writing, they confirm their understandings, reflect on the meaning and explore new understandings.

Testing is a controlled task for measuring what students can do without teacher help. Teaching is the opportunity to make a difference in the self-regulating capacity of the learner. Reflect on your teaching moves and engage in a discussion with your colleagues to shift from testing to teaching. When students focus on meaning-making with every text they read, they will be able to show their competencies on the test.

For more information about the Lesley University Center for Reading Recovery and Literacy Collaborative’s events and trainings, visit http://www.lesley.edu/crr

Elevating Teacher Expertise: Key to Literacy for All Children

irene_fountas_2012_webby Irene Fountas, Author and Director of the Center for Reading Recovery and Literacy Collaborative at Lesley University

Over the decades, we have witnessed a variety of perspectives on the essentials of high quality literacy opportunities for children. Though we have seen a variety of approaches to instruction and arguments about content, the key role of teacher expertise in schools must be at the forefront of systemic change if we are serious about educating every child.

This means abandoning the notion that adopting a new set of materials, another new program or getting better units will be the most important factor. Of course we want beautiful books and high quality materials that support global learning but we need to reckon with the fact that what teachers know and understand as they make minute-by-minute decisions within the act of teaching is what will make the biggest difference in student learning. This will mean an investment in continuous professional learning with a focus on creating a culture of teacher growth in our schools.

Four key areas of expertise are essential for literacy teachers:

1. Expertise in Systematic Observation and Assessment  

Teachers need to be able to observe carefully what students know and are able to do as readers, writers, listeners, talkers, or viewers and they need to be skilled at using this information to guide teaching. Skilled observers note the precise language and literacy behaviors the child reveals and understand how the behaviors reflect the child’s building of a processing system for literacy. They can use that knowledge to make their next teaching move. Responsive teaching meets the learners where they are and brings them forward with intention and precision.

2. Expertise in Understanding the Reading and Writing Process and How it Changes Over Time  

Teachers need to know what proficient reading and writing looks like and sounds like. Through observing effective processing and how it changes over time, teachers build understandings of how readers and writers build a literacy processing system and can teach towards those competencies. This means teaching forward with a clear view of the competencies and the ability to note changes along the way.

3. Expertise in Understanding the Demands of Texts  

When teachers understand the ten characteristics of texts (Fountas and Pinnell), they can anticipate the demands and scaffold each reader in taking on new ways of processing increasingly complex texts. When teachers are able to analyze mentor texts, they can help writers learn how to write for a variety of purposes and audiences from effective writers of every genre. Knowledge of texts also enables the expert teacher to use different texts for different purposes.

4. Expertise in Core Instructional Procedures  

Teachers need to develop an expertise in a set of highly effective instructional procedures that can be linked to student learning. The procedures need to reflect elements of high impact teaching such as good pacing, intensity, and transfer. This includes knowing when whole group teaching, small group teaching, or individual teaching is appropriate and effective for the students. This also requires knowledge of the texts that provide the appropriate amount of support and challenge to assure new learning.

We have long known that what teachers know and can do is the most important factor in student learning. This means going beyond scripts and one size fits all lessons delivered the same way to students to complex teaching that is grounded in teacher understanding. We argue for the kind of thoughtful teaching that means not just changing what teachers do, but how they think about what they do. This means a school filled with educators who value and actively seek continuous professional learning and administrators who understand the investment in teacher expertise is the soundest long-term investment in student learning.

Our team at the Lesley University Center for Reading Recovery and Literacy Collaborative provides a high level professional development for teachers and administrators to support these areas of expertise. We hope you will join us for an institute, a seminar series, or a long-term partnership to create the systemic change that assures every child grows up literate in our schools. www.lesley.edu/crr 

So How Are Your Reading Interventions Working?

toni's photo for blogby Toni Czekanski, Assistant Director, Center for Reading Recovery and Literacy Collaborative

Schools and school districts spend a lot of money on interventions designed to help students who have difficulty learning to read or write become more proficient in a short amount of time. This is the goal: to close the achievement gap. But how well are you implementing your interventions, and how often are you monitoring data on these students to be sure that what you are doing works for them?

LITERACY COLLABORATIVE

364In Literacy Collaborative we talk about Fidelity of Implementation. Usually it is in terms of your implementation of the LC model: leadership team, effective classroom teaching supported by ongoing professional development and coaching, shared leadership, data monitoring, and then…intervention. On the Fidelity of Implementation document we ask you to consider what you are doing for reading and writing interventions and how those interventions are working. What is the payoff for your students?

READING RECOVERY

Teacher and studentIf you have Reading Recovery in your school as your Tier 3 intervention, there are already built-in processes to help Reading Recovery teachers monitor their work with students. Each day they review what happened in the lesson, take a running record of a book that was introduced the day before, and make plans for where to take the student next. These teachers keep track of each student’s performance on a daily basis, and enter it annually into the national IDEC database. Each year these statistics are reviewed and an annual report is published on the successes and challenges related to Reading Recovery student achievement.

It is incumbent on each school to scrutinize their Reading Recovery teaching and data with the same rigor. In this way, the school is ensuring that students get targeted instruction that conforms to the national standards. That is the only way students who are in the bottom 20-25% of their class can possibly hope to not only catch up to the average students in their grade, but sometimes surpass them…and continue to thrive as they move up through the grades.

LEVELED LITERACY INTERVENTION (LLI)

LLI group photoWhat about Leveled Literacy Intervention? In order to implement this small group intervention with fidelity, lessons should be thirty to forty-five minutes long (depending on the level), and the LLI teacher should meet with students daily. Just as in Reading Recovery, frequent assessment assures that the students are working at their growing edge, and that the time spent on this intensive intervention has pay-offs when students meet or exceed the reading performance of their on-grade-level peers.

Schools that have invested in training LLI teachers and in materials to support the intervention then need to insure that the intervention is administered with fidelity. LLI students have been identified as needing help to succeed with reading and writing. If they do not receive the intervention as designed, then schools are compromising the ability of these students to make the big gains necessary to close the gap between them and their on-grade-level peers. Intervention is about hard, targeted teaching designed to make swift achievement gains. What can your school leadership team do to insure that interventions are administered as designed?

Whatever interventions your school uses, here are some things you might consider:

  • Time: is the time you have allotted for your interventionists to work with students adequate? Can they meet with students five days a week for the prescribed amount of time? Do they have adequate time between lessons to reflect on their teaching and record data? If time is tight, how might you stretch it?
  • Training and Monitoring: Have interventionists received adequate training in how to use materials and monitor data? Do they engage with ongoing professional development to keep their teaching skills sharp? Do they meet with other interventionists in the district to share experiences and problem-solve dilemmas?
  • Data analysis: Do interventionists have time to analyze data and meet with literacy teams to problem-solve when students are not making adequate progress? How frequently does this happen? Reading Recovery and LLI are short-term interventions. If students are not progressing after ten to fifteen lessons, another pair of eyes and ears might help to make shifts in the teaching that will help students be more successful. What procedures are in place to re-evaluate instruction that is not working and support interventionists who might need help in analyzing their work?
  • Team work: Do the administrators, classroom teachers, interventionists, and literacy coaches work as a team to develop intervention plans and monitor them for success? Does the administrator support the interventionists with time, space, materials, and ongoing professional development opportunities? Does the team meet periodically to review the progress of students taking part in interventions to determine whether those interventions are successful? What are the criteria you use to determine success?

These are all hard questions, but they can help you with the bottom line. And that bottom line is working toward student achievement through the diligent planning and implementation of effective interventions. An intervention can only be successful when done with rigor and fidelity, and when it is supported by close examination of assessment data and teaching practices.

Writing Matters- Teaching and Learning from the Heart

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Guest blog post by Peter Catalanotto and JoEllen McCarthy, 2014 Literacy for All Conference Speakers

Unless we reach into our students’ hearts, we have no entry

into their minds.”

-Regie Routman

Getting at the core of what matters most to all readers, writers and thinkers, is the “heart” work of education. As Regie Routman said, we need to reach into their hearts in order to reach their minds.

Children live what they learn. Young writers learn from explicit instruction, modeling and emulating what they see strong writers do. Studying these authors inspires creativity, and supports a vision of what is possible for kids to do.

Books touch the hearts and minds of all readers. Powerful picture books serve as mentor texts to lift the quality of student writing, but more importantly they can also have the “power” to lift students up. Books can connect us as members of a growing community of learners. Books can leave heartprints: they can touch our lives and leave lasting impressions on our hearts. That’s why it isn’t enough to choose the mentor texts for the what, but it is also important to think about the why.

“Mentor texts are more than just craft coaches for writers- they can also offer inspiration and life lessons.”

– Georgia Heard

To teach is to touch a life.

When Peter started school, he wrote backwards and upside down, a condition called dysgraphia. Because he wrote backwards, he never aspired to be a writer. Several teachers had him practice writing. More importantly, his third grade teacher, Miss Dunn, put into practice the belief- allow a child to lead with their strengths.

When she noticed Peter’s struggle with writing, she suggested for a book report that he simply read the book and draw a series of pictures. When she saw his drawings she said it was clear that he read and understood the story. Then she asked if there was a way she could know what the characters in the pictures were feeling and thinking, or what they might do next. Peter looked up at her and said, “I could add words.”

“That’s brilliant!” she exclaimed. “Yes, you can add words to your pictures!”

Powerful words: “Yes you can.”

Yes we can in fact, reach into the hearts and minds of our students. We reflect on the what and why of our students’ needs. Isn’t that what matters most? Now, more than ever, we need to practice kindness, practice patience, and practice love. Because children won’t remember most of what you say and do. But they remember how you made them feel. What matters most in writing, (in reading, in life—) touching the hearts of all learners.

Miss Dunn touched Peter’s heart and mind. Who is your Miss Dunn? More importantly, whose Miss Dunn will you be?

Mentor author/ illustrator Peter Catalanotto and educator, JoEllen McCarthy offer an invitation to connect with them, collaborate, and celebrate what matters most to reach the heart of all learners.

Join the conversation at the Literacy for All conference session LCF-9 Tuesday, November 4th: Writing Matters: Learning From and With Mentor Authors (Grades K-5)

Balancing Opportunities for Children to Think and Talk About Text

Kathleen-FayGuest blog post by Literacy for All Conference featured speaker Kathleen Fay, Primary Literacy Collaborative District Trainer for Fairfax County Public Schools in Virginia

When I taught Reading Recovery, I remember being blown away by the question, “What is the child’s theory of reading?” I hadn’t thought about interpreting behaviors to reveal a possible reading theory for each child. One child may enter school with a solid foundation that books make sense, we talk about them, and we have favorites. Another child may think that reading is getting the words right, or remembering the words. School situations, testing situations, home interactions, bedtime stories, listening to a funny story, being asked about ideas… each interaction has the potential to contribute to a child’s theory of reading, positively or not, regardless of intention. As teachers, we only have control over what goes on in our classrooms. As such, what we say to children, how we listen to them, and how we respond to them, can contribute to their identity as a reader (a writer, a learner, a person) and how they perceive what reading can do for them. It is as exciting as it is daunting.

Here’s an exaggeration to illustrate my point. A child reads a text during a guided reading session and is asked a series of questions to follow up: What happened? What happened next? What happened at the end? What was your favorite part? Why do you think the author wrote this story?

Regardless of the intentions behind this interaction, there are possible contributions to the child’s in-the-head theory: Reading is about remembering what I read. I have to prove to them I just read the text.  My responses are either right or wrong. I should like what I read. Once I figure out what my teacher wants me to say, she’ll be happy with me, or she’ll leave me alone.

We want kids to be active and genuine in their thinking. To reveal this thinking, we have to have authentic conversations with them. Yet we have to be careful of our tone and that even open-ended questions don’t feel like a barrage. I have to constantly remind myself to be genuine. Wait. Listen. Talk with. Especially with tentative children, I’ve tried to use statements instead of questions:

  • I wonder what you’re thinking…
  • Let’s pick a part to talk about…Let’s talk about…
  • I wonder why [the character] did that.
  • Wow, I didn’t know that! That makes me think …

Interacting this way, the theory we hope to be building is: Someone cares about what I think. I have something to say. My ideas matter. It’s okay not to know. Sometimes people aren’t sure, but they share what they are thinking anyway. There are books we like and books we don’t like. I can learn something when I read.

It’s not about which prompts or opening moves are right but the importance of balancing opportunities for children to think and talk about text and that the joy and pleasure in books may not be about the author’s message or the main idea of the story. Sometimes it’s just about enjoying a few quiet moments of undivided attention that isn’t scripted or defined by standards. I’m reminded of this when I read with my daughter. For the past few weeks we spend time every night searching for the ten hamster children, noticing another parallel in the illustrations, and playing with different voices in Peggy Rathman’s Ten Minutes Till Bedtime (1998). In these moments, books bring us together. My hope is that our quiet (or very loud) talk, impromptu reactions, and play with texts build her theory that reading is worthwhile and what she contributes is valued and brings meaning to this enjoyable experience.

becoming-one-communityKathleen has more than 20 years of experience working as a classroom teacher, Reading Recovery teacher, and most recently, as a Literacy Collaborative Coach in Title I schools. She is co-author, with Suzanne Whaley, of Becoming One Community: Reading and Writing with English Language Learners (Stenhouse, 2004). She will be presenting at the upcoming Literacy for All conference in Providence, RI. Her sessions on Monday, November 3 and Tuesday, November 4 include: 

LCD-5 — Keeping Meaning at the Forefront of Book Introductions (Grades K–2)

LCF-3 — Keeping Meaning at the Forefront of Book Introductions (Grades K–2) 

LCG-2 — Using Small-Group Read-Alouds to Support Young Readers (Grades K–2)

Originality—the Nonfiction Advantage

by 2014 Literacy for All Featured Speaker and Guest Blogger, Sneed Collard III

FireBird.finalCovOnly lo-resLike many people, I enjoy reading before going to sleep every night. Lately, a curious thing has happened. Despite a stack of novels next to my bed, I’ve found myself exclusively reaching for nonfiction books to wrap up my day with. Many factors could explain this phenomenon, but I think I’ve figured out the real reason. Nonfiction, unlike fiction, is more likely to offer me something I crave: originality.

I should explain here that I make my living as a writer, and have been writing both fiction and nonfiction children’s books for thirty years. And while I’m very proud of my novels, I’m the first to admit that the stories in them have been told before. Sure, I offer new characters, voices, plots, and twists, but the basic barebones stories are as timeless as storytelling itself. I recognize this in my favorite adult novelists, too. I enjoy their work, but I rarely encounter something fresh and original.

The same cannot be said of nonfiction.

Unlike fiction, nonfiction has the potential to offer readers almost limitless refreshing, thought-provoking, and often delightful experiences. In the past month, I’ve read three amazing books: Scott Anderson’s Lawrence in Arabia, Daniel James Brown’s The Boys in the Boat, and Mark Karlansky’s Cod: A Biography of the Fish that Changed the World. Each of these books provided pleasurable, surprising reading while inducing me to think about the world in a slightly different way. How can that be?

Simple.

The world is an astonishingly complex and fascinating place. Furthermore, it is filled with the myriad experiences of more than seven billion people. Almost every thing and every person has a fascinating story to tell—one that probably has never been told before. For the nonfiction writer, it’s not too difficult to come up with a story that breaks new ground. Nowhere is this more true than in my primary field of expertise, the biological sciences.

About two years ago, for instance, I got interested in woodpeckers and heard that Professor Dick Hutto, an ornithologist at nearby University of Montana, happened to work on them. I called him up and asked if I could buy him a coffee, and find out exactly what he’d learned about these birds. Our chat amazed me.

It turns out that, although Dick Hutto did know a lot about woodpeckers, what he knew even more about were burned forests. After the fires of 1988, he and his wife began poking around burn areas all over the West. All the press had been negative about the fires, and he wanted to see for himself if the fires really were the terrible, destructive force everyone was claiming.

Turns out, they weren’t.

In his first year of looking through burn areas, Professor Hutto observed more than 100 species of birds nesting in and using the burn areas. That launched him into studying the importance of burn areas not just to birds, but to thousands of other species of animals and plants, too. Over the next few years, in fact, Dick would discover that burn areas aren’t just important, they are essential for many species of life. In the West, for instance, dozens of bird species use burn areas, and 15 species use them more than any other habitat. These birds include American Robins, Mountain Bluebirds, and the ultimate “fire bird”, the Black-backed Woodpecker.

Not surprisingly, once I heard this story I knew that I had to write about it. I began reading scientific papers, going out into burn areas with Dick, and interviewing other scientists as well. The result is the book Fire Birds—Valuing Natural Wildfires and Burned Forests (Bucking Horse Books, Missoula, 2015). I’m very proud of this book, and not only because it’s a fun, engaging story. What I love about it is that the book offers young readers—and, I hope, adults—a topic that they’ve never seen before, one that has the potential to change how they think about our world.

And that’s the beauty and power of nonfiction. We humans still know so little about the world. What some of us do know often isn’t ever transmitted to the rest of the world. I am so excited when I discover a new interesting person or historical event or natural phenomenon, and children are too. Recently, there’s been a big push to incorporate more nonfiction books into classrooms and to me, this is a no-brainer. While fantasy and other fiction books are often shoved down young readers’ throats, I’ve never found one half as interesting as the real world around us.

If you are an educator, I encourage you to look beyond Common Core requirements in choosing the books to share with your students. Instead, embrace the remarkable complexity and diversity of our planet. When you start sharing real stories with your kids, you won’t need to force them to read. Instead, you’ll join them in a great journey of discovery.

Sneed Collard will be presenting at the 2014 Literacy for All Conference in Providence, RI:

LCB-2 — Common Core Canines: Great Dog Books to Use in K–8 Curricula (Grades K–8)

LCD-3 — Exploring the Frontier of Children’s Literature (Grades K–8)

In addition to Sneed’s sessions, there are two other sessions at the conference that will focus on nonfiction literature:

LCF-11 Best Nonfiction Literature (Grades K–2) with Catherine Desjardins, Julie Connors, Julie Murray, and Nicole Daly

LCD-14 The Reality Is: Nonfiction Books Kids Will Want to Read (Grades 3–6) with Susannah Richards

The Lessons of Large Scale Literacy Reform

Guest blog post by Andy Hargreaves, Keynote Speaker at the 2014 Literacy for All Conference and Brennan Chair in Education in the Lynch School of Education at Boston College

Cover of OECD ReportLess than a year ago, I participated with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (the OECD who do the PISA tests) to do a review of the educational improvement strategy for Wales. Part of the Welsh strategy was to raise student achievement in literacy and numeracy (math) across the country in a relatively short space of time. Our report advised that the Welsh Government should rethink this strategy. Here’s why.

Large-scale literacy reform has been in vogue in the US and elsewhere for two decades now. It has been one of the driving forces of educational change across the country and many other parts of the world. One of the places it began was in New York District 2 in the mid 1990s. There, the Chancellor of Schools, Anthony Alvarado, and his staff, imposed a literacy program across the whole system, linked to measurable achievement gains, and backed up with detailed new materials and intensive one-on-one in-classroom coaching.

Harvard professor Richard Elmore and his school superintendent coauthor Deanne Burney articulated and applauded the reform design and its impact on results. Diane Ravitch later took some of the edge off the achievement gains by arguing that some of them were a result of gentrification of the community, not of the change strategy. But the more important point is that when the San Diego school district became enamored of the model, and transplanted Alvarado and many of his team members to implement it on the other side of America in a fraction of the timescale, the results were catastrophic. Gains were not sustainable and open warfare broke out between district factions as teachers and principals buckled under impossible high stakes pressure for short-term results. What was the lesson to be learned? Large-scale literacy reform has to be grown gradually. It cannot be imposed impatiently.

Across the Atlantic, England’s Blair Government was also setting about large-scale reform by instituting a national Literacy and Numeracy Stragey (NLNS). The strategy had an extremely tight focus so that many schools abandoned other curriculum priorities to accommodate it, it provided prescribed and paced instructional materials, it exercised relentless surveillance over implementation through the use of coaching and other strategies, and it imposed high stakes consequences for schools that failed to improve.

Architects and admirers of the strategy like Tony Blair’s education adviser, Sir Michael Barber, claimed there were significant gains as a result of the strategy. Critics provided data indicating that the improving trend preceded the implementation of the strategy, they pointed to how the results hit a plateau once the easiest wins had been made (for instance by concentrating on what US scholars call “bubble kids”), and they revealed the existence of huge collateral damage in the form of a narrowed curriculum, loss of classroom creativity and the rise of teaching to the test.

One of the biggest problems was massive teacher burnout and professional disillusionment that led to a crisis of recruitment and retention of high quality teachers. What was the lesson to be learned? Simultaneous imposition of literacy and math reform requires teachers to change all their practice all at once and this is so overwhelming that it threatens the basic capacity of the profession to maintain its quality.

On the US’s northern border, the high performing province of Ontario also took on the strategy of large scale reform but tried to learn from the mistakes that had been made in England that it saw as providing insufficient support and imposing punitive pressure, and in San Diego by taking an off-the-shelf model and implementing it too fast. Inspired by the systemic literacy-oriented change efforts of Peter Hill and Carmel Crevola in the Catholic School system of Melbourne, Australia, Ontario created a literacy and numeracy secretariat that made these areas of change the province’s core priority. It paced the change agenda so that achievement gains would be steady and sustainable rather than spectacular but unstable. It also provided a stronger spirit and much higher levels of support than in England in terms of resources, training, partnership with the teacher unions and an emphasis on school-to-school assistance.

Ontario’s literacy gains of 2-3% or so every year seemed both steady and cumulatively substantial and sustainable. But even its more advanced strategy had its limitations. The literacy gains were not matched by similar gains in math over the whole reform period, and in the past four years, math results have actually fallen. In practice, reformers now acknowledge, the numeracy strategy was not nearly so intensive as the literacy strategy. What is the lesson to be learned? In practice, even Ontario, with all its change knowledge, couldn’t implement wholesale changes in literacy and numeracy together, so one half of the strategy fell by the wayside by default.

Wales introduced its own Literacy and Numeracy Framework in September of 2013. Drawing on the lessons of international reform efforts, the advice of the OECD team on which I served as one of two experts was, in effect, for Wales to have a literacy then numeracy strategy, or vice versa. Here is what our team concluded (OECD 2014, p76):

Effective continuous professional development and implementation of the Literacy and Numeracy Framework may …. require judgments about sequencing. To implement the framework requires teachers to learn three new things: new content in literacy, new content in numeracy, and new pedagogical strategies for effective differentiated teaching in particular. For a primary teacher, these three areas of learning affect all their teaching, almost all of the time, all at once. There is increasing evidence that this is simply too much. For example, in Ontario, the effort to implement the Literacy and Numeracy Strategy in practice meant that while great gains were made in literacy, the other half of the strategy (numeracy) did not get implemented to any great extent and in recent years results in numeracy have actually fallen….. Wales should learn from this experience.

This is a valuable lesson not only for the nation of Wales, but for all nations undertaking system-wide reforms in literacy, or math, or both.

http://www.oecd.org/edu/Improving-schools-in-Wales.pdf

2814615_origAndy Hargreaves is the Brennan Chair in Education in the Lynch School of Education at Boston College. His new book with Alan Boyle and Alma Harris is Uplifting Leadership and is published by Wiley.

His sessions at the Literacy for All conference include:

  • Keynote Session: Collective Responsibility For the Success of All Teachers and Students (Grades K–8)
  • Collective Responsibility in Business, Sports, and Education (Grades K–8)
  • Collective Responsibility in Action (Grades K–8)